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    Aviation kerosene

    Aviation kerosene or aircraft kerosene is used in aircraft engines not only as fuel but also as a coolant, and is used to lubricate the various parts of fuel systems. Thus, it must have good anti-wear (characterized by the reduction of friction-surface wear when used) and low-temperature characteristics, high thermo-oxidative stability and high specific heat.

    Main performance characteristics (kerosene TS-1 aircraft):

    • good vaporability to ensure complete combustion; 
    • high completeness of combustion and heat to determine flight range; 
    • good pumpability and low temperature properties to supply the combustion chamber; low tendency towards deposit formation; 
    • good compatibility with materials and anti-wear/antistatic properties.
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    Aircraft kerosene TS-1 is obtained under the straight-run distillation of sulphurous oils (desired cut — 150-250 °C). In case of high total sulphur and mercaptan content, hydrotreating or demercaptanization is performed, after which it is used in mixture with straight-run cut. Hydrotreated-component content is limited to 70% concentration to prevent reduction of the fuel’s anti-wear properties.

    The aircraft kerosene supplied by Gazpromneft – Aero complies with the following physical and chemical properties:

    Item No.

    Parameter

    Norm

    1

    Density at 20 °С, g/cm³, minimum

    0.780

    2

    Fractional breakdown:

     

     

    overpoint, °С, maximum

    150

     

    10% is distilled at °С, maximum

    165

     

    50% is distilled at °С, maximum

    195

     

    90% is distilled at °С, maximum

    230

     

    98% is distilled at °С, maximum

    250

    3

    Kinematic viscosity, mm²/s:

     

     

    at 20 °С, minimum

    1.3

     

    at 40 °С, minimum

    8

    4

    Low heat value, kJ/kg, minimum

    43120

    5

    Smoke point, mm, minimum

    25

    6

    Acidity, mg КОН/100 cm³, maximum

    0.7

    7

    Iodine number, iodine g per 100 g of kerosene, maximum

    2.5

    8

    Closed flash point, °С, minimum

    28

    9

    Chilling point, °С, maximum

    minus 50

    10

    Thermo-oxidative stability under static conditions at 150°С, mg per 100 cm³ of kerosene, maximum

     

    11

    Aromatic hydrocarbon mass fraction, %, maximum

    22

    12

    Soluble gum concentration, mg per 100 cm³ of kerosene, maximum

    3

    13

    Total sulphur mass fraction , %, maximum

    0.2

    14

    Mercaptan sulphur mass fraction , %, maximum

    0.003

    15

    Hydrogen disulfide mass fraction

    None

    16

    Copper plate test at 100°С over 3 h.

    Withstands

    17

    Ash content, %, maximum

    0.003

    18

    Content of water soluble acids and alkali

    None

    19

    Content of mechanical impurities and water

    None

    20

    Interaction with water, points, maximum:

     

     

    kerosene interface condition

    1

     

    condition of separated phases

    1

     


    History of kerosene

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    Man has long searched for a convenient and simple source of light, heat, and later on – fuel. The first research-and- development breakthrough in the area of fuel was kerosene. Where did the word “kerosene” come from? As explained in the Russian Encyclopaedia, published in St. Petersburg, the word “kerosene” was derived from the name of the trading house “Care and Son,” which when pronounced sounds like “kerosene.” Quite different information is provided by the Great Soviet Encyclopaedia. Its authors think that the word “kerosene” originated from the Greek word “keros,” meaning wax. 

    An important stage in development of the fuel industry, kerosene in particular, involved the invention of an oil-refining apparatus in the early 19th Century. It was a Russian invention. Our fellow countrymen were far ahead of other world countries in terms of oil refining. In those days, oil was used in Europe as a material to lubricate wheels. Scientists did not view oil as a more useful or profitable raw material. By that time, however, dark liquid (“black gold”) was already being refined into white liquid in the Northern Caucuses, as it yielded a more convenient lighting liquid. According to the history books, this achievement is attributed to the Dubinin brothers, since they were responsible for managing the production of kerosene from black gold in the Northern Caucuses. The archives note that peasant Vasiliy Dubinin and his brothers had discovered a way to purify oleum terrae. The same archive provides a drawing and explanations for the invention. In 1823, the brothers built the world’s first refinery in Mozdok, representing the first major kerosene-production facility. 

    For the next few decades, kerosene was the main substance used for lighting. Gradually, the situation changed, and by roughly 1911, benzine had emerged as the main refining product. The reason for such a sudden shift in the leading positions among petrochemicals was the invention and spread of the internal-combustion engine. Kerosene, however, was not relegated to the dustbin of history, becoming a highly-demanded commodity once again in 1950. Scientists the world over worked frantically on the development and designing of jet-propelled and turbo-prop aviation fuelled by kerosene, referred to by that time as aircraft kerosene. Kerosene turned out to be the optimal and most relevant fuel for aviation purposes.